Antimicrobial activity. Environmental risks. Nanotechnology. Pollutants. Water contamination


The industrial contamination, along with domestic effluents, agricultural and urban runoff are contaminating rivers and making it difficult for conventional water treatment to remove all the pollutants. This contamination can impact in the quality of rivers, in the quality of life of aquatic animals and can impact in the human health through the consumption of water. In order to improve the water quality, nanotechnology has been studied as an alternative to better remove contaminants, such as, heavy metals, oily water separation and antimicrobial activity. Besides, with the increase in industrialization along with the contamination of rivers, seawater could be an interesting alternative for drinking water source after adequate treatment. Nanomaterials are being studied as a possibility to remove salt from seawater, making it possible to drink. Howerver, there is a need to elucidate the potential risks to the environemt that these nanomaterials can cause. Therefore, the aim of this review is to describe some applications of nanotechnology in water treatment regarding metals, oil removal from water, antimicrobial activity and desalination in order to improve water quality, as well, as discuss their potential risk to the environment.

Biografia do Autor

Aline Belem Machado, Universidade Feevale

Graduada em Biomedicina pela Universidade Feevale. Mestra e Doutoranda em Qualidade Ambiental pela Universidade Feevale

Gabriela Zimmermann Prado Rodrigues, Universidade Feevale

Mestra em Qualidade Ambiental pela Universidade Feevale (Novo Hamburgo/Brasil). Biomédica pela Universidade Feevale (Novo Hamburgo/Brasil) 

Luciane Rosa Feksa, Universidade Feevale

Doutora em Ciências Biológicas (Bioquímica) pela Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (Porto Alegre/ Brasil). Professora na Universidade Feevale.

Daiane Bolzan Berlese, Universidade Feevale

Doutora em Bioquímica Toxicológica pela Universidade Federal de Santa Maria (Santa Maria/Brasil). Professora na Universidade Feevale

José Galizia Tundisi, Universidade Feevale

Doutor em Ciências Biológicas pela Universidade de São Paulo (São Paulo/ Brasil). Professor Titular na Universidade Feevale (Novo Hamburgo/Brasil).


ABO-ALMAGED, H. H.; GABER, A. A. Synthesis and characterization of nano-hydroxyapatite membranes for water desalination. Materials Today Communications, England, v. 13, p. 186-191, Oct. 2017.

ADELEYE, A. S.; CONWAY, J. R.; GARNER, K.; HUANG, Y.; SU, Y.; KELLER, A. A. Engineered nanomaterials for water treatment and remediation: costs, benefits, and applicability. Chemical Engineering Journal, Switzerland, v. 286, p. 640-662, Nov. 2016.

AKHAVAN, O. Lasting antibacterial activities of Ag–TiO2/Ag/a-TiO2 nanocomposite thin film photocatalysts under solar light irradiation. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, United States, v. 336, n. 1, p. 117-124, Aug. 2009.

ANJUM, M., MIANDAD, R., WAQAS, M., GEHANY, F., BARAKAT, M.A. Remediation of wastewater using various nano-materials. Arabian Journal of Chemistry, Saudi Arabia, Oct. 2016.

BASHEER, A. A. New generation nano-adsorbents for the removal of emerging contaminants in water. Journal of Molecular Liquids, Netherlands, v. 261, p. 583-593, Apr. 2018.

CORTÉS, C. & MARCOS, R. Genotoxicity of disinfection byproducts and disinfected waters: A review of recent literature. Mutation Research/Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis, Netherlands, v. 831, p. 1-12, July. 2018.

DALZOCHIO, T., RODRIGUES, G.Z.P., SIMÕES, L.A.R., SOUZA, M.S., PETRY, I.E., ANDRIGUETTI, N.B., SILVA, G.J.H., SILVA, L.B, GEHLEN, G. In situ monitoring of the Sinos River, southern Brazil: water quality parameters, biomarkers, and metal bioaccumulation in fish. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, Germany, v. 25, n. 10, Apr. 2018.

GOH, P.S., ISMAIL, A.F., HILAL, N. Nano-enabled membranes technology: Sustainable and revolutionary solutions for membrane desalination?. Desalination, Netherlands, v. 380, p. 100-104, Feb. 2016.

HATAMIE, A.; PARHAM, H.; ZARGAR, B.; HEIDARI, Z. Evaluating magnetic nano-ferrofluid as a novel coagulant for surface water treatment. Journal of Molecular Liquids, Netherlands, v. 219, p. 694-702, Apr. 2016.

HUA, M., ZHANG, S., PAN, B., ZHANG, W., LV, L., ZHANG, Q. Heavy metal removal from water/wastewater by nanosized metal oxides: a review. Journal of Hazardous Materials, Netherlands, v. 211, p. 317-331, Apr. 2012.

ISLAM, M.S., AHMED, K., RAKNUZZAMAN, M., AL-HAMUN, H., ISLAM, M.K. Heavy metal pollution in surface water and sediment: a preliminary assessment of an urban river in a developing country. Ecological Indicators, United States, v. 48, p. 282-291, Jan. 2015.

JIE, G.; KONGYIN, Z.; XINXIN, Z.; ZHIJIAN, C.; MIN, C.; TIAN, C.; JUNFU, W. Preparation and characterization of carboxyl multi-walled carbon nanotubes/calcium alginate composite hydrogel nano-filtration membrane. Materials Letters, Netherlands, v. 157, p. 112-115, May. 2015.

KABIR, E.; KUMAR, V.; KIM, K.-H.; YIP, A. C. K.; SOHN, J. R. Environmental impacts of nanomaterials. Journal of Environmental Management, England, v. 225, p. 261-271, Aug. 2018.

KHAYDAROV, R. A.; KHAYDAROV, R. R.; GAPUROVA, O. Nano-photocatalysts for the destruction of chloro-organic compounds and bacteria in water. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, United States, v. 406, p. 105-110, Jun. 2013.

KLAINE, S. J.; ALVAREZ, P. J. J.; BATLEY, G. E.; FERNANDES, T. F.; HANDY, R. D.; LYON, D. Y.; MAHENDRA, S. Y.; MCLAUGHLIN, M. J.; LEAD, J. R. Nanomaterials in the environment: behavior, fate, bioavailability, and effects. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, Unites States, v. 27, n. 9, p. 1825-1851, Nov. 2008.

LEAD, J. R.; BATLEY, G. E.; ALVAREZ, P. J. J.; CROTEAU, M.-N.; HANDY, R. D.; MCLAUGHLIN, M. J.; JUDY, J. D.; SCHIRMER, K. Nanomaterials in the Environment: Behavior, Fate, Bioavailability, and Effects—An Updated Review. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, United States, v. 37, n. 8, p. 2019-2063, Mar. 2018.

LI, Q.; MAHENDRA, S.; LYON, D. Y.; BRUNET, L.; LIGA, M. V.; LI, D.; ALVAREZ, P. J. J. Antimicrobial nanomaterials for water disinfection and microbial control: potential applications and implications. Water Research, England, v. 42, n. 18, p. 4591-4602, Aug. 2008.

LU, Y.; YUAN, W. Superhydrophobic three-dimensional porous ethyl cellulose absorbent with micro/nano-scale hierarchical structures for highly efficient removal of oily contaminants from water. Carbohydrate Polymers, v. 191, p. 86-94, Mar. 2018.

MOTTIER, A.; MOUCHET, F.; PINELLI, É.; GAUTHIER, L.; FLAHAUT, E. Environmental impact of engineered carbon nanoparticles: from releases to effects on the aquatic biota. Current Opinion in Biotechnology, England, v. 46, p. 1-6, Jan. 2017.

NAASZ, S.; ALTENBURGER, R.; KÜHNEL, D. Environmental mixtures of nanomaterials and chemicals: The Trojan-horse phenomenon and its relevance for ecotoxicity. Science of the Total Environment, Netherlands, v. 635, p. 1170-1181, Apr. 2018.

PARHAM, H.; BATES, S.; XIA, Y.; ZHU, Y. A highly efficient and versatile carbon nanotube/ceramic composite filter. Carbon, v. 54, p. 215-223, Nov. 2013.

PINA, A. S.; BATALHA, I. L.; FERNANDES, C. S. M.; AOKI, M. A.; ROQUE, A. C. A. Exploring the potential of magnetic antimicrobial agents for water disinfection. Water Research, England, v. 66, p. 160-168, Aug. 2014.

PUROHIT, R.; MITTAL, A.; DALELA, S.; WARUDKAR, V.; PUROHIT, K.; PUROHIT, S. Social, Environmental and Ethical Impacts of Nanotechnology. Materials Today: Proceedings, England, v. 4, n. 4, p. 5461-5467, 2017.

QU, X., ALVAREZ, P.J.J., LI, Q. Applications of nanotechnology in water and wastewater treatment. Water Research, England, v. 47, n. 12, p. 3931-3946, Aug. 2013.

QU, X., BRAME, J., LI, Q., ALVAREZ, P.J. Nanotechnology for a safe and sustainable water supply: enabling integrated water treatment and reuse. Accounts of Chemical Research, United States, v. 46, n. 3, p. 834-843, Jun. 2013.

RASTMANESH, F., SAFAIE, S., ZARASVANDI, A.R., EDRAKI, M. Heavy metal enrichment and ecological risk assessment of surface sediments in Khorramabad River, West Iran. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, Netherlands, v. 190, n. 5, p. 273, Apr. 2018.

SANTHOSH, C., VELMURUGAN, V., JACOB, G., JEONG, S.K., GRACE, A.N., BHATNAGAR, A. Role of nanomaterials in water treatment applications: a review. Chemical Engineering Journal, Switzerland, v. 306, p. 1116-1137, Dec. 2016.

SAVOLAINEN, K.; ALENIUS, H.; NORPPA, H.; PYLKKÄNEN, L.; TUOMI, T.; KASPER, G. Risk assessment of engineered nanomaterials and nanotechnologies—a review. Toxicology, Ireland, v. 269, n. 2-3, p. 92-104, Mar. 2010.

SURWADE, S.P., SMIRNOV, S.N., VLASSIOUK, I.V., UNOCIC, R.R., VEITH, G.M., DAI, S., MAHURIN, S.M. Water desalination using nanoporous single-layer graphene. Nature Nanotechnology, England, v. 10, n. 5, p. 459-464, Mar. 2015.

SYED, S., ALHAZZAA, M.I., ASIF, M. Treatment of oily water using hydrophobic nano-silica. Chemical Engineering Journal, Switzerland, v. 167, n. 1, p. 99-103, Feb. 2011.

TAN, B.Y.L., TAI, M.H., JUAY, J., LIU, Z., SUN, D. A study on the performance of self-cleaning oil–water separation membrane formed by various TiO2 nanostructures. Separation and Purification Technology, Netherlands, v. 156, p. 942-951, Dec. 2015.

VELAYI, E.; NOROUZBEIGI, R. Synthesis of hierarchical superhydrophobic zinc oxide nano-structures for oil/water separation. Ceramics International. England, v. 44, n. 12, p. 14202-14208, Aug. 2018.

VILARDI, G., MPOURAS, T., DERMATAS, D., VERDONE, N., POLYDERA, A., DI PALMA, L. 2018. Nanomaterials application for heavy metals recovery from polluted water: The combination of nano zero-valent iron and carbon nanotubes. Competitive adsorption non-linear modeling. Chemosphere, England, v. 201, p. 716-729, Jun. 2018.

WHO, World Health Organization. Guidelines for drinking-water quality: fourth edition incorporating the first addendum. WHO, 2017. Available at: <;jsessionid= F243D62FDA2E4C2CA246F8B3463955DB?sequence=1>. Accessed on: 07 October. 2018.

WHO/UNICEF, World Health Organization/UNICEF. Progress on sanitation and drinking water – 2015 update and MDG assessment. Geneva, WHO, 2015. Available at:<>. Accessed on: 23 July. 2018.

XU, J.; TRAN, T. N.; LIN, H.; DAI, N. Removal of disinfection byproducts in forward osmosis for wastewater recycling. Journal of Membrane Science, Netherlands, v. 564, p. 352-360, Oct. 2018.

XU, P., ZENG, G.M., HUANG, D.L., FENG, C.L., HU, S., ZHAO, M.H., LAI, C., WEI, Z., HUANG, C., XIE, G.X., LIU, Z.F. Use of iron oxide nanomaterials in wastewater treatment: a review. Science of the Total Environment, Netherlands, v. 424, p. 1-10, May. 2012.

ZAHED, M.; PARSAMEHR, P. S.; TOFIGHY, M. A.; MOHAMMADI, T. Synthesis and functionalization of graphene oxide (GO) for salty water desalination as adsorbent. Chemical Engineering Research and Design, v. 138, p. 358-365, 2018.

ZHANG, Y., WU, B., XU, H., LIU, H., WANG, M., HE, Y., PAN, B. Nanomaterials-enabled water and wastewater treatment. NanoImpact, Netherlands, v. 3, p. 22-39, July. 2016.




Como Citar

Machado, A. B., Rodrigues, G. Z. P., Feksa, L. R., Berlese, D. B., & Tundisi, J. G. (2019). APPLICATIONS OF NANOTECHNOLOGY IN WATER TREATMENT. Revista Conhecimento Online, 1, 03–15.



Artigos Livres